Cruise Ship Environmental Hygiene and the Risk of Norovirus Infection Outbreaks: An Objective Assessment of 56 Vessels Over 3 Years

By Philip C. Carling, Lou Ann Bruno-Murtha, Jeffrey K. Griffiths

  • Cruise Ship Environmental Hygiene and the Risk of Norovirus Infection Outbreaks: An Objective Assessment of 56 Vessels Over 3 Years

Background

Norovirus infection outbreaks (NoVOs) occur frequently in closed populations, such as cruise ship passengers. Environmental contamination is believed to play an important role in NoVO propagation.
Methods

Trained health care professionals covertly evaluated the thoroughness of disinfection cleaning (TDC) of 6 standardized objects (toilet seat, flush handle or button, toilet stall inner handhold, stall inner door handle, restroom inner door handle, and baby changing table surfaces) with high potential for fecal contamination in cruise ship public restrooms, by means of a previously validated novel targeting method.
Results

Fifty-six cruise ships (30% of 180 vessels operated by 9 large cruise lines) were evaluated from July 2005 through August 2008. Overall, 37% (range, 4%?100%; 95% confidence interval, 29.2%?45.4%) of 8344 objects in 273 randomly selected public restrooms were cleaned daily. The TDC did not differ by cruise line and did not correlate with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vessel Sanitation Program inspection scores (r2, .002). More than half the vessels had overall TDC scores Conclusions

An objective evaluation of public restroom environmental hygiene on 56 cruise ships found that only 37% of selected toilet area objects were cleaned on a daily basis. Low TDC scores may predict subsequent NoVO-prone vessels. Enhanced public restroom cleaning may prevent or moderate NoVOs on cruise ships.
Authors
Philip C. Carling - 1,2
Lou Ann Bruno-Murtha - 3,4
Jeffrey K. Griffiths - 5
1 - Carney Hospital
2 - Boston University School of Medicine
3 - Cambridge Health Alliance
4 - Harvard Medical School
5 - Tufts University Schools of Medicine, Nutrition, and Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts
Reprints or correspondence: Dr Philip C. Carling, Carney Hospital, 2100 Dorchester Ave, Boston, MA 02124 (pcarling@comcast.net).
Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009;49:1312?1317
© 2009 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Related Topics

Related Products

  • Trash Compactor ManualOmniFlex™ Dispense-and-Vac

    The OmniFlex Dispense-and-Vac system offers a simple, fast approach to cleaner, safer floors. Its extreme cleaning capabilities achieve hygienic results in even the heaviest soil and grease conditions. In fact, like most Kaivac systems, it's up to 60 times better at removing soil and contaminants than mopping. That makes the Dispense-and-Vac is perfect for food service establishments, industrial facilities, light duty public restrooms and much more. Just apply fresh cleaning solution to the floor, spread and lightly brush into grout lines, and then completely vacuum away all soils and liquid, leaving floors really clean and bone dry. It's perfect for daily cleaning and degreasing of commercial floors. It's also great for applying and removing stripper on finished floors. The process is radically better, faster and safer than cleaning with a mop.

    Click here to see the compact Space Saver Dispense-and-Vac model

  • Trash Compactor ManualErgo Speed Spreader

    Kaivac's Ergo Speed Spreader is a flat mop assembly combining Kaivac's Ergo Mop Handle with the 18" Pad Holder along with 2 spreader pads for rapidly spreading cleaning solution. This practical accessory can be used with any Kaivac system but is particularly useful with the OmniFlex Dispense-and-Vac systems.

  • Trash Compactor ManualKaiVac 1750 No-Touch Cleaning® System

    When it comes to restrooms and other heavily soiled areas, nothing beats Spray-and-Vac cleaning. Kaivac’s No-Touch Cleaning systems are built for extreme soil removal, empowering workers to clean hygienically without touching contaminated surfaces. Plus, it cuts labor, chemical and equipment costs. Achieving great, consistent results is easy with these patented systems. Simply apply automatically diluted cleaning solution to fixtures and floors in a low pressure fan spray, and then rinse surfaces and floors with always-fresh, clean water. The built-in power of the indoor pressure washer flushes soils out of grout lines and tight places that mops can’t reach. Finally, just vacuum the floor dry -- completely removing soils, moisture and contaminants from all surfaces, grout lines and crevices, leaving the floor virtually dry and soil free. The Kaivac 1750 is perfect for areas large and small. It boasts a 17 gallon fresh water and a 17 gallon recovery tank. The system is powered by a 500 p.s.i. pump and a powerful 3-stage wet/dry vacuum.

  • Trash Compactor ManualKaiVac 2750 No-Touch Cleaning® System

    When it comes to restrooms and other heavily soiled areas, nothing beats Spray-and-Vac cleaning. Kaivac’s No-Touch Cleaning systems are built for extreme soil removal, empowering workers to clean hygienically without touching contaminated surfaces. Plus, it cuts labor, chemical and equipment costs. Achieving great, consistent results is easy with these patented systems. Simply apply automatically diluted cleaning solution to fixtures and floors in a low pressure fan spray, and then rinse surfaces and floors with always-fresh, clean water. The built-in power of the indoor pressure washer flushes soils out of grout lines and tight places that mops can’t reach. Finally, just vacuum the floor dry -- completely removing soils, moisture and contaminants from all surfaces, grout lines and crevices, leaving the floor virtually dry and soil free. The largest of the No-Touch Cleaning systems, the Kaivac 2750 is perfect for big facilities with high capacity needs. It features a 27 gallon fresh water tank, 500 PSI pump, 3-stage vacuum and the industry’s longest spray line and vacuum hose.

Privacy Policy Terms of Service Return Policy
© 2001 - 2018 Kaivac, Inc.
Close

Cart

Item removed. Undo